The Climate, in the main agricultural zones, is semi-arid with a mean rainfall average of 350 – 500mm per annum. The main rainy season extends from April to September. For cropping purpose there are two season, Gu’ (April and May) and Karan (late July and September) in the western regions; and Gu’ (April and May) and Deyr (September and October) in the eastern regions. The western regions of Somaliland receive the highest rainfall, which reaches over 500mm p.a. and is adequate to support production of drylands crops. In the Togdheer and Sanaag regions, agricultural production is mainly by irrigation through use of floodwater and sand dams.
The irrigable land limited by low availability of water. The irrigation potential in western Somaliland estimated at 4,000 ha while data for the central and eastern parts of the country is not available. The irrigation potential for the whole country is much higher once the central and eastern regions taken into consideration in addition to surface runoﬀ harvesting, sand dams, ground water and rainwater harvesting.
The sector is predominantly subsistence through rain-fed production of cereals mainly Sorghum, Maize and Cowpeas. The irrigated agriculture has a commercial component through production and selling of vegetables such as Tomatoes. Cabbage, Watermelon, Muskmelon, Hot paper ( Chili) and fruits such as oranges and mangoes. Guava, Lemon Rain- fed farming accounts for 90% and irrigation 10% of all agricultural activities. Smallholder farmers dominate the agriculture sector with relatively small farm sizes ranging from 2 – 30 ha with an average of 4 ha. Total agricultural production is still low hence cannot meet the domestic cereal and grain requirements.
Types of Agricultural Systems that currently Available in Somaliland, Agro-pastoral Rain-fed Agriculture, Pump fed Irrigated Agriculture, Spate Irrigated Agriculture.